Doctor of Medicine, University Amsterdam, 1992. Degree in Social Medicine, Netherlands School Public Health, Utrecht, 2000.
Resident, general medicine St. Catharina Teaching Hospital, Eindhoven, Netherlands, 1992—1993, St. Andreas Teaching Hospital, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1994—1995. Accident and emergency physician Academy Medical Center, Netherlands, 1995—2003. Outreach medical care physician for the homeless GG & GD Municipal Health Service, Netherlands, since 1995.
Member of Dutch Association of Addiction Medicine, Dutch Association for Public Health & Science.