Silberg received a Doctor of Science in chemistry in 1970 from Babes-Bolyai University.
Silberg began his career as a researcher at the Babes-Bolyai University in 1960. Twenty years later he became a researcher at the Institute of Chemical and Bio-chemical Energetics of Babes-Bolyai University.
Since 1990, Ioan was a Professor at the same university. He held the position of a head of organic chemistry department at this university from 1992 to 2003. Since 2000, he served as a director of Research Institute of chemistry "Raluca Ripan" of Babes-Bolyai University.
Silberg was a member of International Society of Heterocyclic Chemistry, Society of Romanian Chemists, Romanian Academy and National Council of Scientific Research Universities.
On March 30, 1959 Ioan Silberg married Simona Margareta Popescu. They have 2 children.