Bachelor of Science, University London, 1947.
Assistant Lector, Lector, Senior Lector, London School of Economies and Political Science, London, United Kingdom, 1949-1963. Director (part-time), London Office Institute, Institution Science Economics Appliquée, Paris, 1959-1962. Visiting Professor of Economics, University California Berkeley, 1962-1963.
Professor of Economics, Director, Institute, Institution Social and Economics Research, University York, United Kingdom, 1964-1982. Staff Consultant, Canadian Royal Commission Taxation, 1964. Visiting Professor, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, 1984.
Visiting Scholar, Center Study Public Choice, George Mason University, 1985. Professor of Economics, University York, York, United Kingdom, since 1982. Joint General Editor, University York Studies Economics, 1964-1978.
Editorial Boards, Public Finance Quarterly, J Economics Studies.
Distrusts undue specialisation. Major interest has shifted from industrial economics to public finance/public sector studies/ public choice with a continuing interest in social policy and economics of human resources. A permanent preoccupation has been with the inadequacy of economic theory in respect particularly of its assumptions about human behaviour and knowledge and the related treatment of uncertainty.
This interest and contribution is reflected in the selection of publications. It has evolved from an early interest in cost theory, leading to rejection of objective-cost pricing rules, to a concern with the inadequacies of a positivist economics. While retaining a research and teaching interest in the listed special areas, the ongoing intellectual preoccupation is with the development and propagation of subjectivist ideas, and with the ‘marriage’ of subjectivism, mainstream positivism, and public choice.
Major specific contributions have been to the study of public expenditures, public utility pricing and cost theory generally, economics of health and education. At the policy level, the propagation of understanding of the role and value of free markets and libertarian principles.