Bachelor of Arts, Drury College, 1934, Bachelor of Music, 1934.
Chief still photographer African expeditions including Gatti-Hallicrafters Expedition, 1947-1948, 12th Gatti Expedition, 1952, Wyman Carroll Congo Expedition, 1955, 13th Gatti Expedition, 1956, 14th Gatti Expedition, 1957. Also free-lance photographic expeditions, Africa, 1960, 66, 76-77. Trips for Global Assessment of Functioning Corporation to South America, 1962, 63, 77-78, Australia and New Zealand, 1972-1973.
Alaska, 1982, Europe, 1983.
One-man shows include Faces and Places at Springfield (Missouri) Art Museum, 1989, also numerous assignments throughout United States.
Served asphotographer with Coast Artillery corpus, United States army, 1941-1942. Member International Center Photography.