Dr Faculté de Droit de Paris, 1929.
Assistant, Faculté de Droit, Sorbonne, Paris, 1930. Conseiller technique, Ministère du Commerce (Accords commerciaux), 1930-1935. Professor Doyen, Faculté de Droit, University Poitiers, 1936-1945,1954-1955.
Professor, Faculté de Droit et des Sciences Economics, University de Paris, 1955. Director d’études, l’Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, 1949. Professor, University Paris, 1, Pantheon-Sorbonne, 1970-1977.
Honorary Professor, University Paris, 1. Director d’études écon. internat., Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris, since 1978.
The main contributions relate to international economics but very often efforts have been made to clarify the connections between economics and other disciplines at different levels of analysis (historical and sociological, more or less abstract or concrete, etc.). In international economics I have been concerned to challenge leading orthodox opinion with regard to ‘equilibrium’ and the price mechanism or policies of adjustment under fixed or flexible exchange rates. It is not sufficient to ask how effectively the price mechanism or the rate of interest will work and the reflections on the difficulties encountered are quite different for countries more or less developed and integrated in an international trade and payments system.
The starting point of a series of considerations with regards to freer trade, protectionism and international economic co-operation is to be traced to the interventions deemed necessary during long waves (Kondratieff cycles) in prices. Long-run tendencies in foreign patterns appear especially in the light of the French experiment from 1880 until World War II. In these circumstances, the persistence of a similar trade pattern from year to year proves the persistence of the same national preferences for certain structures as far as the main categories of imports or experts are concerned. The eventuality of conflicting national structural preferences makes international co-operation even more vital.
Several of my papers are concerned with different aspects of the need for economic co-operation rather than international or transnational integration. Nowadays, the search for co-operation and intergovernmental negotiation is the antidote to many evils and threats of a long-run recession.