Bachelor of Arts, Master of Arts, Doctor of Philosophy Columbia University, 1945, 1947, 1954.
Fellow, National Institute, Institution Public Affairs, 1945. Fiscal Analyst, United States Bureau Budget, 1946. Instructor Economics, Rutgers University, 1948-1949.
Economics, New York State Hospital Study, 1948-1949. Instructor Economics, Amherst College, Massachusetts, 1949-1954. Instructor Economics, University Massachusetts, Amherst, 1953.
Assistant Professor of Economics, University California, 1954-1957. Fellow, Center Advanced Study Behavioral Sciences, 1956-1957. Assistant Professor of Economics, UnixChicago, 60.
Task Force, Governor Illinois Study State Tax System, 1961. Association Professor, Professor of Economics, Northwestern University, 1960-1963, 1963-1966. Visiting Fellow, Nuffield College Oxford, 1965-1966.
Faculty Association, Joint Center Urban Studies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., USA, Harvard University, since 1966. Visiting Professor, National Science Foundation, USA Summer Institute, Institution Urban Economics, Stanford University, 1970, 1971, 1972. Academic Visiting, London School of Economies and Political Science, London, United Kingdom, 1973-1974.
Professor of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., USA, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, 1966. Visiting Professor, University California Berkeley, United States of America, 4. Editorial Board, Journal of Urban Economics.
My earliest research was in the field of health-care economics. I gradually shifted to pure welfare theory and through this to utility theory, to individual and group
decision-making, to public choice and to an elaborate modelling of representative government as an abstract decision-making system, including in this a novel theory of coalitions. This led to more and more applications of welfare theory in several large branches.
One of these involved substantial research commitments to the economics of environment and urban economics. My later work developed into a full specialisation in urban economics, with attention to location and spatial economics, urban transportation, housing, slums, urban renewal and other policies, and local government. Another research branch stemmed from utility and decision theory. It led to research in the microeconomics of migration, to a new systematisation of the economics of criminal behaviour (including so-called ‘irrational crime’), and to individual and group risk behaviour.
This latter has coalesced with my work in pollution theory and policy. A third branch derived from my public choice interests, along with my urban concentration. It involved theoretical research on the functioning of a federal governmental structure, and on sources of inefficiency in that functioning. This has combined in the urban context with theoretical and institutional problems in the governance of metropolitan areas, and interacts strongly with problems of State and local government, and of specific sectoral urban policy problems. Other derived and ad hoc areas of interest have been (in the 1960s) a considerable commitment to strategy and defence economics, a more sporadic but durable interest in market structure and performance, production theory in extractive industry, government regulation, and most recently, the study of the post-Cultural Revolution structural changes in the economy of the People’s Republic of China.