Bachelor, University Texas, 1938. Master of Arts, University Chicago, 1939. Doctor of Philosophy, University Chicago, 1942.
Member faculty New York University, since 1946, professor history, 1962-1980, professor emeritus, since 1982, chairman department Washington Square College, 1961-1969, director Portuguese-Brazilian Center, 1961-1965, director Center for Latin American Studies, 1977-1979. Expert consultant United States Air Force, 1946-1951, 56-57. Visiting professor University Virginia, 1976-1977.
Served with United States Army Air Force, 1942-1946. Member American History Association, Phi Beta Kappa (honorary), Kappa Sigma.