Robinson, John Cleveland was born on April 10, 1817 in Binghamton, New York, United States. Son of Doctor Tracy and Sarah (Cleveland) Robinson.
Graduated from the United States Military Academy, 1838.
Commissioned Second lieutenant 5th Infantry, United States Army, 1839. Served as regimental and brigade quartermaster during Mexican War. Fought in battles of Pato Alto, Resaca de la Palma, siege of Monterey.
Commissioned captain, 1850. Foguht in Seminole War, 1856-1857. Commissioned colonel, 1861, brigadier general United States Volunteers, 1862.
Brevetted for actions at battles of Gettysburg, Wilderness. Served with Army of Potomac until Battle of Spotsylvania. Commanded military district of New York.
Brevetted major, 1864. Military commander, commissioner Bureau Freedmen, North Carolina. Commander Department of South, 67, Department of Lakes, 1868.
Lieutenant governor New York, 1872-1874. Commander-in-chief G.A.R., 1877-1878. President Society Army of Potomac, 1887.
Recipient Congressional Medal of Honor for gallantry, Laurel Hill, Virginia, 1894. Statue dedicated to him, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 1917.