Bachelor of Arts, University Miami, 1948; Master of Arts, U. Miami, 1951; Doctor of Philosophy (Harrison fellow), University of Pennsylvania, 1960.
Instructor University Miami, Essex Community College, Baltimore. Director adult education Jewish Community Center, Baltimore. Assistant professor Michigan State University, East Lansing, 1961-1971, professor, 1971-1987, professor emeritus, since 1987.
Visiting scholar ethnic studies Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 1969-1970. Visiting professor history Museum Graduate Program, Cooperstown, New York. Associate professor James Madison College, Michigan State University, 1969-1971.
Research associate Michigan State University Museum, 1988-1989, adjunct curator, since 1989. Consultant Ford Foundation, National Park Service, various public firms.
Served with United States Army, 1942-1945. Member American History Association, Society of America Historians, American Jewish History Society, Immigration History Society.
Married Selma Dubin, 1956. 1 son, Michael Jeffrey.