Bachelor, Colby College, 1936. Doctor of Humane Letters, Colby College, 1966. Postgraduate in Japanese studies, Yale University, 1943.
Reporter The Sentinel, Waterville, 1930-1937. Correspondent A.P., Portland, Maine, 1937-1942, Washington, 1942, foreign correspondent China, Middle East, London, Paris, North Africa, Indochina, Hong Kong,, Japan, 1945-1984, bureau chief Hong Kong, 1956-1958, Beijing, 1979-1980, special correspondent, 1977-1984. Lecturer, free-lance writer, editor, 1984-2008.
Editor-in-residence East-West Center, Honolulu, 1985. Distinguished lecturer China, Colby College, 1986. Lecturer University Copenhagen, Arhus University, 1987.
Served with United States Army, 1942-1945, China. Member of Foreign Corrs. of Japan (life. President 1965-1966), Oriental (London).