In 1851, Hellmesberger became violin professor at the Vienna Conservatory, artistic director and conductor of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde concerts as well as director of the Vienna Conservatory. After the division of the two roles in 1859, he remained director of the Conservatory, while Johann Herbeck became conductor of the concerts. He was professor until 1877, but continued on as director until his death in Vienna.
In 1860 he became concertmaster of the Court Opera orchestra and took on various other positions in Vienna"s music life.
Hellmesberger founded the Hellmesberger Quartet in 1849. He surrendered leadership and first chair to Josef, Junior. in 1887.