Master of Arts, U. Helsinki, Finland, 1966; D of Political Sciences, U. Helsinki, Finland, 1972.
Assistant teacher, U. Helsinki, 1963-1965; research assistant, Academy Finland, Helsinki, 1966-1971; assistant professor, U. Helsinki, 1971-1973; junior researcher, Academy Finland, 1974-1975; professor practical philosophy, U. Turku, Finland, since 1976; also dean faculty of political science, U. Turku, Finland, since 1989; docent practical philosophy, U. Helsinki, since 1972. Member State Board Examiners (for students), Helsinki, since 1989.
Contributor Finnish newspapers, radio and television, Helsinki and Turku, since 1980. Ensign Finland Infantry, 1958-1959. Member Philosophical Society Finland, Armenian Philosophical Society (honorary), Finnish Academy Sciences (administration board since 1987), International Institute Argumentation (admissions board since 1985), Hobbes Society, Spinoza Society.
Married Pirkko Synnöve Lumme, April 9, 1970. Children: Päivi Annikki, Ahti-Veikko Juhani, Seppo Antero.