Bachelor in Social Sciences with honors, Singapore, 1970. Master of Arts, Williams College, 1973.
Deputy secretary Singapore Government, 1970-1975. Alternate executive director International Monetary Fund, 1976-1978. Executive director National Productivity Board, Singapore, 1981-1987, Port of Singapore Authority, 1987-1991.
Executive vice president Singapore Technologies, 1992-1993. Chief Executive Officer HTP Holdings Ltd., 1995-1997. Executive director Freight Links Express Holdings Ltd., Singapore, since 1997.