Juris Doctor, U. Turin, 1895. Doctor U. Paris, 1951, U. Algiers, 1952, U. Oxford, Trieste, 1955, U. Basle, 1956, Bologna, 1957, Paris, 1953, Rome, Geneva, 1959.
An economist of the classical school, he was also a liberal in politics. In addition to his writings on finance and taxation, he contributed to economic history and history of economic thought. His personal library of economic works was legendary.
Probably his outstanding economic work is Principi. (1932) but his editorial and journalistic work with La riforma sociale and Rivista di storia economica were also important. Forced to flee to Switzerland in 1943, his return to Italy was followed by a period of outstanding achievement as a statesman.
Fellow Political Economics, Professor Finance Science, 1899, 1907, University Turin. Governor, Bank of Italy, 1945.
Member of Senate of the Kingdom of Italy, 1919-1945. Member Consulta Nazionale, 1945-1946. Member of Constituent Assembly, 1946-1948.
Member of Senate of Italian Republic, 1948, 55—. Member of many Italian and foreign professional associations and orgns. Club: Cobden (London).
Married to Ida Pellegrini, December 19, 1903. Children: Mario, Roberto, Giulio.