Klompé attended the Utrecht University where she studied chemistry from 1929 till 1937.
She was the first female government minister in the Netherlands in 1956. She was responsible for the Social Security Bill in 1963. Her father was the Dutch J. P. M. Klompé, who owned a stationery shop and her mother was the German-born A. M. J. A. Verdang.
During these years, and as a result of her studies, Klompé started to question several aspects of religion and in particular the institute itself.
Following this crisis, Klompé"s commitment to religion was reinforced which she combined with an open mind. Klompé obtained a Doctor of Philosophy in mathematics and physics (1941) and went on to teach chemistry and physics in the Mater Dei High School for girls between 1932 and 1949 in Nijmegen.
In 1942, Klompé also started to study medicine at the University of Utrecht, but when the Second World War broke out the university was closed. During the war years, Klompé was active in the Dutch underground resistance as a messenger.
After the war, Klompé started to focus on politics, which was rather unusual for a woman at the time.
In 1948, she entered the House of Representatives and by 1956 she became the first female secretary of the Netherlands focusing on Social Affairs. Her main contribution was the passing of the Social Security Bill in 1963, which replaced the previous Poverty Bill. In addition, Klompé was involved in the Catholic community.
Furthermore, Klompé supported the underprivileged in society.
Therefore, her critics called her "Our Lady of Perpetual Succour". Klompé died on 28 October 1986 in The Hague.
Klompé was member of the House of Representatives (1948–1956. 1959; 1963–1966; 1967), Minister of Social Work (1956–1963), interim Minister of Education, Arts, and Sciences (1961–1962. 1963), and Minister of Culture, Recreation, and Social Work (1966–1971).
Klompé was also a member of several national and international associations, such as the Council of Europe and the Joint Task Force for European Cooperation in Development.
She was a member of the national council for the Bishops" Conference, member of the Papal Commission "Justitia et Pax", and also founded the union of Roman Catholic female graduates.