Master of Arts summa cum laude, Moscow State University, 1950. Doctor of Hebrew Literature (honorary), Hebrew Union College. Doctor of Hebrew Literature (honorary), Jewish Institute of Religion, Los Angeles, 1971.
Research worker Institute of Tajik language and literature Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic Academy of Sciences, Dushanbe, 1951-1957. Head philological department Norody Azii i Affriki Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1958-1962, research worker Institute Oriental Studies, 1962-1971. Professor Persian and Tajik literature Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel, 1971-1995, head department Indian, Iranaian and Armenian Studies Israel, 1981-1995, professor emeritus Israel, since 1995.
Active dissent movement of intellectuals and Jewish dissent movement Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics, 1967-1971. Member Presidium, Israel Public Council for Soviet Jewry, 1971-1979, executive council World Hebrew Union, 1976-1981, council for Higher Education, Israel, 1976-1986, Israel Council, World Jewish Congress, 1978-1982. Fellow Jewish Academy Arts and Sciences (United States).
Member Israel Oriental Society, Association for Jewish Studies United States of America (honorary), Anjoman-e Ostadan-e Zaban-o Adabiyyat-e Farsi (Iran, foreign), Association Study of the Nationalities (Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and E. Europe).
Married Ninella Sheinin, November 19, 1949. Children: Inna, Eliyahu.