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Mikhail Semenovich Bernshtam

historian , author

Mikhail Bernshtam, USSR Author, historian.


Bernshtam, Mikhail was born in 1940.


Graduated in history from Leningrad University.


Became involved in the human rights movement. Arrested, 1973. Inmate in a mental hospital in Rostov-on-Don, released 1974. Works circulated in samizdat.

Emigrated, 1976, settled in the USA. Edited valuable material in a collection by Solzhenitsyn, INRI, on 20th century Russian history: Narodnoe Soprotivlenie Kommunizmu v Rossii: Nezavisimoe Rabochee Dvizhenie v 1918 Godu: Dokumenty i Materialy, Paris, 1981.


Every religion forces people to rely on outside authority, thus depriving them to become self-sufficient.


Individuals have rights to express freedom if it safeguarde the interests of a collective.