In 1916 Nicholas graduated from the Voronezh men's gymnasium, in 1921 he graduated from the natural department of the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of Moscow University.
In 1919-1931 Nicholas Nikolyukin was the assistant, anatomist, he was also in charge of the institute of comparative anatomy, vice-rector of the histological institute of the medical faculty, head of the natural department of the pedagogical faculty of the Voronezh State University. Since 1931 Nicholas Ivanovich was the head of the Department of Zoology, dean of the Faculty of Natural Sciences, professor (1935) of the Voronezh State Pedagogical Institute. In the years 1930-1934 at the same time he was a professor, head of the department of histology and embryology of the Voronezh Veterinary Institute.
In 1936-1942 - the scientific director of the biological station of the Voronezh State Pedagogical Institute in the village of Novozhivotinnoye. In 1948 he was dismissed from the Voronezh State Pedagogical Institute after the August session of the All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences named after V.I. Lenin for his passion to genetics.
In 1948-1961 Nikoluykin was a researcher at the Saratov branch of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Fisheries.Since 1961 - head of the laboratory of hybridization of the same institute in Moscow.