1926 graduated Medical Faculty, Leningrad University. 1926-1929 postgrad, microbiology course at USSR Academy of Medical Science.
Since 1929 senior associate, then Professor, Institute of Microbiology, USSR Academy of Science. Studies geological, agricultural, soil, marine and medical microbiology and antibiotics. 1939 suggested use of actinomyces antibiotics for patients suffering from tuberculosis, diphtheria, etc.
1938-1939 obtained one of first Soviet antibiotics “mitsetin” (mycetin), successfully used in treatment of infectious diseases in Soviet Army during World War II. Drew up classification key for bacteria and actinomyces, based on principles of evolution and phylogeny of organisms. 1941 devised classification key for ray fungi and 1949 for bacteria.
Developed methods of selecting and identifying antagonists capable of synthesizing antibiotics. Organized production, development and research of new antibiotics in USSR. 1959 visited Japan to study antibiotics industry.
Member, Editorial Board, journals “Antibiotiki” (Antibiotics), “Mikrobiologiya” (Microbiology) and “Priroda” (Nature).
Religion is bad because it stops people thinking in a rational and objective way.