AB, Harvard University, 1951. Doctor of Philosophy, Harvard University, 1959. Master of Arts, University Pennsylvania, 1952.
Instructor history Pennsylvania State University, State College, 1957-1960. Assistant professor College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia, 1960-1965, associate professor, 1965-1970, professor, 1970-1987, chancellor professor, 1987-1992, Pullen professor, 1992-1994, professor emeritus, since 1994. Fulbright professor American history University Stockholm, 1966-1967.
Served with United States Army, 1952-1954. American Philosophical Society grantee, 1964, 66. Member American Association of University Professors, Phi Beta Kappa.
Married Hanni Faculty, June 13, 1952. Children: Linda Caroline, Alan Theodore.