Juris Utriusque Doctor, Comenius University, Bratislava, 1986. Doctor of Philosophy, Slovak Academy Sciences Institute State & Law, 1992.
With Ministry of Justice Law Institute, Slovakia, 1986—1992, deputy director Slovakia, 1992—1995. Member of Parliament National Council of Slovak Republic, Slovakia, since 1992. Member Parliamentary Constitutional Committee, 1992—2002, chairman Prison Commission, 1995—2003.
Member Parliamentary Committee Human Rights, National Minorities & Women's Rights, 2002—2006. Prime minister Slovak Republic, 2006—2010. Slovakian representative European Court Human Rights & European Human Rights Commission, 1994—2000.
Member Slovak delegate to Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, 1994—2005, head of delegate, 1999—2001. Member Slovak Bar Association, since 2000. Observer European Parliament, 2002—2004.
Defense counsel trainee International Criminal Court, The Hague, since 2003. Member editorial board Justicná Review. Co-director Slovak National Center Human Rights, Bratislava.
Director Slovak Center Crime Victims. Assistant military investigator, 1986-1987.
Joined Party Democratic Left, Slovakia, 1992, parliamentary group leader Slovakia, 1994—1996, deputy chairman Slovakia, 1996—1999. Founder & chairman Smer Party, Slovakia, since 1999, parliamentary group leader Slovakia, 2002—2006.
Married; 1 child.