AB magna cum laude, University of California, Davis, 1966; Master of Arts, Johns Hopkins University, 1969; Doctor of Philosophy, Johns Hopkins University, 1972.
Lecturer history, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1970-1972; assistant professor, University of Michigan, 1972; assistant professor, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, 1972-1975; assistant professor, Princeton (New Jersey) U., 1975-1981; research fellow, American Institute for Economics Research, Great Barrington, Massachusetts, 1983; senior associate, American Institute for Economics Research, 1983-1985; director research, American Institute for Economics Research, Great Barrington, Massachusetts, 1985-1991. Chairman faculty American Institute for Economics Research, Great Barrington, 1985-1991, president, Chief Executive Officer, since 1991. Faculty associate Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Cambridge, Massachusetts, since 1993.
Trustee Berkshire Community College Foundation, Pittsfield, Massachusetts, 1982-1984. Member AIER Corporation, Great Barrington, since 1985, Finance Committee, Peru, Massachusetts, 1987-1990. Counsel for charitable activities Progress Foundation, since 1991, trustee, since 1993;board directors Robert Schalkenbach Foundation, New York City, since 1993.
Member of advisory board Foundation for Advancement of Monetary Education, since 1997. Member American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Economics Association, American Finance Association, Union League Club (New York City), Worthington (Massachusetts) Golf Club, Phi Beta Kappa, Phi Kappa Phi.
Married Cathryn Anne Fontana, June 23, 1979. 1 child, Cathryn Elizabeth.