Bachelor of Arts, Illinois Wesleyan University, 1936; Master of Arts, University Illinois, 1937; Doctor of Philosophy, University Illinois, 1939; Master of Arts, University of Oxford, England, 1964.
Research director, Anti-Defamation League, 1939-1941; member of faculty, University of Southern California, since 1946; professor of history, University of Southern California, 1957-1976; distinguished professor emeritus, University of Southern California, since 1976; department chairman, University of Southern California, 1960-1974; acting dean, University of Southern California (College Arts and Science), 1970-1971; associate editor, University of Southern California Press, 1950-1953; visiting professor, Merton College, University of Oxford, 1964. Member South Carolina. Archives Commission, 1960-1974.
Board of directors Columbia Music Festival Association, 1957-1964, 77-85, vice president, 1961-1962, president, 1962-1963. Director Columbia Lyric Opera, Columbia Museum Art, 1966-1969, 74-77, McKissick Museum, 1991-1996. Major Army of the United States, 1941-1946.
Lieutenant colonel; Member American History Association, Southern History Association (executive council 1973-1976), South Carolina. History Association (editor 1947-1955, president 1956-1957), American Studies Association, Organisation American Historians, Southeastern American Studies Association (president 1960-1961), Omicron Delta Kappa.