Bachelor of Arts, Middlebury College, 1945; Master of Arts, University Pennsylvania, 1946; Doctor of Philosophy, University Pennsylvania, 1949.
Assistant instructor, University of Pennsylvania, 1946-1948; instructor, Temple University, 1947-1949; member, Friends' Ambulance Service Unit, China, 1949-1951; chairman, Friends' Ambulance Service Unit, China, 1950-1951; director, Quaker Student House, Freiburg im Breisgau, Federal Republic Germany, 1951-1953; instructor, Lafayette College, 1953-1954; assistant professor, Lafayette College, 1954-1956; member of faculty, Colby College, Waterville, Maine., since 1956; professor philosophy, Colby College, Waterville, Maine., since 1969; chairman social science division, Colby College, Waterville, Maine., 1975-1978; department chairman philosophy and religion, Colby College, Waterville, Maine., 1975-1978; Dana professor philosophy, Colby College, 1986-1991; retired, Colby College, 1991.
New England regional chairman Danforth Associates, 1963-1964. Quaker international affairs representative, Germany, 1964-1966. Board directors American Friends of Le College Cevenol, 1973-1985.
Member Maine Humanities Council, 1980-1985, member executive committee, 1981-1984. With Civilian Public Service, 1943-1946. Member American Philosophical Association, American Association of University Professors, Society for Values in Higher Education.
Married Dorothy Ann Swan, September 2, 1949. Children: Martha Claire, David Alan, Jonathan Robert, Ann Evalyn, Elizabeth Linda.