Bachelor in Commerce, Rhodes University, South Africa, 1955. Bachelor in Commerce with honors, Rhodes University, South Africa, 1956. Doctor of Philosophy, Rhodes University, South Africa, 1968.
Master of Arts in Economics, Vanderbilt University, 1959.
Professor economics University Natal, South Africa, 1973-1978, Graduate School International Studies, University Denver, 1978-1981. Deputy director Institute Social and Economic Research University The University of Durban-Westville, South Africa, 1982-1984. Professor department economics Rhodes University, 1984-1994.
Professor Institute for Social and Economic Research University The University of Durban-Westville, 1995-2000, since 2000. Senior researcher National Institute Economic Policy. Visiting professor University Colorado, Boulder, 1977-1978.
Member American Economics Association, Economics Society South Africa.
Married Brenda Margaret Edds, April 25, 1970. Children: Catherine Stroud, Margaret.