Bachelor of Arts University Oxford, 1954. Master of Business Administration, Doctor of Philosophy University Michigan, 1958, 1961.
Assistant Professor, Association Professor, University Michigan, 1961-1978. Visiting Professor, University Clermont-Ferrand, France, 1981-1982, 1984. Professor of Economics, Director, Center Research Economics Development, University Michigan, United States of America, since 1978.
Health economics and public finance. Estimated the economic effects of malaria control in Sri Lanka by using a large-scale model to simulate the growth of per capita income with and without control. Measured the cost-effectiveness of selected health interventions in Morocco and Colombia.
In the Colombian study, undertaken with H. N. Barnum, linear programming techniques were used in discovering the optimal set of interventions against infant mortality. Used a median-voter model to estimate whether the property tax in Michigan led to an excessive or inadequate level of school expenditures. Collaborated in a survey of the working and investing behaviour of high-income Americans.
Studied problems of comparing the national incomes of different countries, with particular reference to the Middle East.