Bachelor of Arts, Carleton College, 1947; Master of Arts, Harvard University, 1949; Doctor of Philosophy, Harvard University, 1955.
Professor history, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, 1953-1961; professor of history, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1961-1993; professor emeritus, University of Michigan, since 1993; department chairman, University of Michigan, 1975-1977; director, Center for Japanese Studies, 1968-1971, 78, 79. Consultant Office of Education, Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Member sub-committee, joint committee Social Science Research Council.
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Served with United States Marine Corps, 1942-1946. Member Japan Society, Association Asian Studies (executive committee, board directors 1966-1969), International House of Japan, Ann Arbor Racquet Club, Phi Beta Kappa.
Married Caroline Betty Gray, August 24, 1946. Children: Anne Marilyn, David Gray, Brian Vance.