Anderson"s career began at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical where, in 2002, he served as a graduate assistant. In 2003, at Louisiana State University under Nick Saban, Anderson was a student assistant working primarily with wide receivers. He then moved on to Florida State where he worked under the legendary Bobby Bowden as a graduate assistant.
He would spend the next three seasons as a player personnel assistant with the Baltimore Ravens before being promoted to a coaching assistant position in 2008 with the arrival of John Harbaugh.
In 2009, Anderson earned another promotion, this time to defensive assistant. In 2010, Anderson was named the secondary coach.
When Chuck Pagano, the former Ravens defensive coordinator was hired as the head coach of the Indianapolis Colts. lieutenant was soon announced that Anderson would be following Pagano to Indianapolis to serve as the safeties coach.
Roy Anderson would remain in that role until after the 2015 season, in which he was relieved of his duties.
Anderson would not be out of a job for long however, on January 29, 2016, it was announced that he was hired as the assistant defensive backs coach of the San Francisco 49ers.