He graduated from Law Department of Tokyo University (1894).
Sakue Takahashi became professor at the Naval War College and taught the international law.
During the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895), he served as legal advisor to the commander-in-chief of the Standing Squadron. After studying in England, France and Germany, he became professor at the Imperial University of Tokyo. He taught the international public law and diplomatic history. Sakue Takahashi served as the director-general of the Cabinet Legislation Bureau.
He was elected as a member of the House of Peers by Imperial command in 1916.