Early education was received in Boone Middle School and College, Wuchang and he began medical study in the Harvard Medical School of China in Shanghai, China which was continued in the Harvard Medical School of Boston and in 1919 he received the degree of Doctor of Medicine from Harvard University. After graduation served as an interne in the Boston Children's Hospital, the Infectious Diseases Department of the Boston City Hospital, and the Boston Floating Hospital for Sick Infants.
From 1921 to 1931 he served on the staff of the Beijing (Peking) Union Medical College, Beijing (Peking), in the Division of Pediatrics as Assistant, Associate, and Assistant Professor of Pediatrics. During his furlough year in 1925-1926 Mr. Chu was appointed Research Fellow in Pediatrics in the Yale University Hospital at New Haven.
In 1929 Chu Sheng-chih was elected one of the delegates from the Beijing (Peking) Union Medical College to the 8th International Physiological Congress held in Boston and in the same year he visited many important hospitals for children in Europe and the United States.
In 1930-1931 he was appointed chief of the Division of Pediatrics at the Beijing (Peking) Union Medical College. Then in 1932 Mr. Chu was appointed Clinical Professor of Pediatrics in the Medical School of the National Central University and Consulting Physician in the Red Cross Hospital in Shanghai.