Bachelor summa cum laude, Cornell University, 1959. Master of Arts, Harvard University, 1962. Doctor of Philosophy, Harvard University, 1969.
Assistant head history research naval history division Office Chief Naval Operations, 1959-1961. Instructor.history Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1968-1969, assistant professor, 1969-1974,lecturer, 1974-1975. Visiting associate professor European studies School Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, Washington, 1977, Adjunct Professor, 1978-1983.
Associate professor of history Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, 1977-1982, professor, 1982-1991.
Commonwealth professor of history University of Virginia, Charlottesville, 1991-1992, William West. Corcoran professor, 1992. Syndic U. Press New England, 1979-1981.
Consultant National Commission Documents and Records Federal Officials, 1976, Rockefeller Foundation, 1981. Lieutenant United States Naval Reserve, 1959-1961.
National Endowment Humanities fellow, 1972-1973.
American Council Learned Societies fellow, 1976-1977, 85. Senior fellow United States Information Agency-Fulbright Commission, 1984, fellow international security John Doctorate. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 1987-1989, fellow Historisches Kolleg, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1996.
Member of History Society, Society Historians American Foreign Relations, American History Association.
Married Elisabeth Glaser, 1998. Children: Lauren, Daniel.