Educated at local schools before going to Love- dale Training College where he qualified as a teacher.
His first administrative responsibilities came when he was appointed Captain of the AmaBhele in the Alice district on April 25, 1959. He moved 150 miles north to Tsolo to study Bantu law at Jongilizwe College and obtained a diploma in 1963. He became one of two Fingo Executive Council members of the Ciskei Territorial Authority on November 12, 1968. As Chief Minister he piloted his people to self-government on August 1, 1972.
Son of a chief and married to a princess of West Pondoland, he is totally committed to separate development. A strong advocate of other Africans working with the South African government. Opposed to any interference from outside South Africa with advice to his Xhosa people about resisting discrimination. A quiet-spoken man with a small moustache who entered politics after being a teacher.