Bachelor in History, City College of New York, 1963; Master of Arts, Princeton University, 1965; Doctor of Philosophy in History of Science, Princeton University, 1968.
Postdoctoral fellow, Institute History of Medicine/Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 1969; assistant professor of history, Princeton University, 1969-1971; assistant professor then associate professor of history, City College of CUNY, New York City, 1972-1977; from associate professor to professor of history and community and prev. medical, U. Rochester, New York, since 1977; Mercer Brugler distinguished teaching professor, U. Rochester, New York, 1979-1982. Visiting curator, history consultant National Library. of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland., 1995-1997.
Secretary-treasurer Sigerist Circle (of Medical Historians and Health Activists), 1994-1997. Member American Association for the History of Medicine (chairman Welch medal committee 1991-1993).
Married Danielle Fraenkel, December 21, 1963 (divorced December 1981). Children: Elena Julienne, David Avram. Married Corinne Sutter, November 2, 1994.