Bachelor magna cum laude, Tufts University, 1980. Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, 1982. Doctor of Philosophy, Tufts University, 1984.
Research associate, Institute Foreign Policy Analysis, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1983-1984; adjunct research fellow Kennedy School Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, 1983-1984; vice consul, 3d secretary, American Embassy, Kingston, Jamaica., West Indies, 1985-1986; 2nd secretary political section, American Embassy, Tokyo, since 1989; foreign service instructor, Arlington, 1986-1987; operations officer Executive Secretariat, unites states department State, Washington, 1987-1988; foreign service instructor, unites states department State, Arlington, 1988-1989.
Member International Institute Strategic Studies, American Foreign Service Association, Foreign Service Club, The George Town Club, Jamaica Club.