(The work details Bondarev's philosophy on morality and la...)
The work details Bondarev's philosophy on morality and labor. In particular, Bondarev explicates the theory of "bread-labor", arguing that all men, regardless of social position, are morally obligated to perform the physical labor necessary to sustain themselves.
Timofei Mikhailovich was taught literacy by a local clerk.
When Timofei Mikhailovich was 37, his owner signed a commission to send him to the army for a 25-year conscription period. The conscription forcibly separated Bondarev from his wife and children. He was forced to leave his four children in the care of his wife.
In the military, Timofei Mikhailovich renounced his Russian Orthodox faith and joined the Subbotniks, a Sabbatarian sect. In 1867 he was arrested for apostasy, discharged from the army, and sentenced to a life in exile on the Yenisei River in far eastern Russia.
As the only literate resident of his village, Timofei Mikhailovich founded a school, where he taught for 30 years in addition to farming.
(The work details Bondarev's philosophy on morality and la...)1888
Timofei Mikhailovich developed his philosophy of labor, which he wrote about in his treatise, The Triumph of the Farmer or Industry and Parasitism. His philosophy centered on the concept of "bread-labor", by which all men, regardless of social status, are morally obligated to perform the manual labor necessary to sustain themselves.
Leo Tolstoy read the treatise in 1885 and started a long correspondence with Timofei Mikhailovich. He also went to great lengths to publish the work. The first two attempts were censored, but in 1888, the weekly journal Russkoye Delo (The Russian Cause) published a version edited by Tolstoy, who also provided a supplementary essay. It was translated into English and French in 1890. In 1906, Tolstoy's publishing house The Intermediary published the treatise in book form.