He completed his high school studies at Govt High School. After that he joined Bengal Technical Institute and obtained a degree in Mechnical Engineering. Then he graduated from Munich University and obtained the Doctor of Engineering. He has done a research in in Fluid Mechanics.
Triguna Sen actively participated in Non-Cooperation Movement, thus jailed. On his release from jail, he took up a job at Dibrugarh Electric Supply Corporation and worked there for nine years. It was because of his sustained efforts that Jadavpur University was set up in 1955 and he further immensely contributed towards its growth. In 1958-1959 ha was elected to the post of Mayor of Calcutta. He later became the Rector and became the Vice-Chancellor of JU in 1964-1965.
He was awarded Padma Bhushan in the year 1965. He became the Union Minister of Mines, Metals and Petroleum in 1969. Sen, who had active participation in the Bangladesh Liberation Movement in 1971, became the President of NCE, Bengal in 1972.
He was the fellow of Indian Association for Cultivation of Science and the member of the Institution of Engineering (President), Institution of Mechanical Engineers (London), Association of Principles of Technical Institutions (President), Indian Science Congress Association, Governing Body of Birla Industrial and Technological Museum and Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute and others.