Bachelor of Arts, University Vermont, 1943; postgraduate, Princeton University, 1947-1948; Doctor of Philosophy, University Pennsylvania, 1962.
Teacher classical Greek and German, U. Vermont, 1946-1947; reference librarian, South Asia section Orientalia division Library of Congress, Washington, 1950-1962; curator South Asia collection, East-West Center U. Hawaii, Honolulu, 1962-1963; professor Sanskrit, U. Hawaii, since 1962; professor of history, U. Hawaii, 1964-1971; language consultant Philosophy East and West, U. Hawaii, 1967-1989; department chairman Indo-Pacific languages, U. Hawaii, 1971-1980. Visiting research fellow Institute Advanced Studies in Humanities, U. Edinburgh, Scotland, summer 1978.
Served with Army of the United States, 1943-1946. Member American Oriental Society, Tibet Society, Royal Asiatic Society, Sigma Alpha Epsilon, Phi Beta Kappa.
Married Geraldine Kaufman, February 18, 1961.