Bachelor of Arts Amherst College, Master of Arts, 1957. Master of Arts, Doctor of Philosophy Yale University, 1958, 1963.
Instructor, Yale University, 1961-1963. Assistant Professor, Association Professor, University Michigan, 1963-1966, 1966-1971. Special Economics Assistant, Assistant Attorney General for Antitrust, United States Department Justice, Washington, District of Columbia, 1967-1968.
Visiting Professor, Williams College, Massachusetts, 1982, Nankai University, Tianjin, China, 1983, University Massachusetts, 1984-1985. Professor of Economics, University Michigan, Ann Arbor. Michigan, United States of America, .
Editorial Boards, Antitrust Bulletin, Industrial Organization Review, Review of Economics and Statistics.
The nature and effects of markets structure, in concept and fact. Developed early econometric analysis of market structures in the United States and United Kingdom. Established market share as the central element of market structure relations of employment discrimination to market structure.
Also, prepared early econometric tests of the performance of British public enterprises. Helped develop the analysis of marginal-cost pricing, the ratebase effect of regulation, and entry into regulated markets. Recent work measures the rise of competition in the United States economy, shows problems of ‘sustainability’ and ‘contestability’, and explores the nature of competition.
Monographs deal with market power and alternative policies toward monopoly. Textbooks cover industrial organisation, public policies toward business, and elementary economics.