Student in National Education, East Wemyss, 1954. Student in Mechanical Engineering, Technology College, Kirkcaldy, 1959. Student in Marine Engineering, Technology College, Dundee, 1971.
Apprentice shipbuilder, Burntisland, Scotland, 1955—1960. Marine engineer shipping firms Liverpool, Hong Kong, 1960—1974. Surveyor American Bureau Shipping, Kobe, Japan, 1974—1978.
Senior surveyor Ulsan, Republic of Korea, 1978—1981. Principal surveyor Yokohama, Japan, since 1981.
Member of Yokohama Country and Athletic (chairman membership and rules committee), Mipo (Ulsan).
Married Yoko Norita Carmichael, June 1, 1978. 1 child Hisako Elizabeth.