Bachelor of Science cum laude, Harvard University, 1943; Master of Arts, Columbia University, 1948; Doctor of Philosophy, Columbia University, 1961.
Faculty, New York Military Academy, Cornwall-on-Hudson, 1954-1955; instructor School General Studies, Columbia University, New York City, 1955-1958; instructor, Duke U., Durham, North Carolina, 1958-1961; from assistant professor to associate professor, U. Massachusetts, Amherst, 1961-1970; professor, U. Massachusetts, Amherst, since 1970. Visiting professor U. Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany, 1968.
Founding member Amherst History Commission, 1973-1979, New England Archivists. With United States Air Force, 1943-1945, European Theatre of Operations. Member American History Association, Organization American Historians, Institute Early American History and Culture, Society Historians Early American Republic, New York State History Association.
Married Mary Elizabeth Kromer, August 2, 1958. 1 child, Elizabeth Anne.