Doctor of Medicine, University Vienna, Austria, 1965. Postdoctoral, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 1965.
Postdoctoral fellow Department General Physiology, University Vienna, 1964-1965. Resident department neurology-psychiatry University Klin, Vienna, 1966-1968. Assistant professor department physiology State University of New York, Buffalo, 1968-1969.
Assistant professor, head cerebral circulation lab, department psy./neur. University Clinic, Vienna, 1969-1971. Faculty neurology University Klin., 1971-1974.
Research associate department neurology University Minnesota, Minneapolis, 1974. Associate professor neurology University Klin., Vienna, 1974-1978. Director Max-Planck Institute for Neurological Research & Neurological Clinic, Cologne, 1978—1985.
Chairman, director Neurological University Clinic Cologne-Lindenthal, 1985—2005. Director Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research, 1985—2005.
Member of Austrian Academy of Sciences, Society Nuclear Medicine, German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina, European Federal Neurological Society (president 2001-2005), German Neurological Society, American Heart Association (member stroke council), International Stroke Society (president 1992-1996), French Society Neurology (honorary), World Stroke Organization (honorary), Austrian Society Neurologists (honorary), American Neurological Association (honorary).
Married Brigitte Kroiss, August 8, 1965. Children: Susanne, Julian.