Bachelor in Economics, Cairo University. Doctor of Philosophy in Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1981.
Senior economist International Monetary Fund, 1981—1986. Economic advisor to prime minister Government Egypt, 1986—1993, minister economy, 1997—1999, minister economy and foreign trade, 1999—2001, minister foreign trade, 2001—2004, minister finance, since 2004. Economic advisor Central Bank Egypt, 1986—1993.
Associate professor economics Cairo University.