Master of Laws, Harvard University, 1991. Doctor of Philosophy, University Milan, 1992.
Assistant professor international law University Siena, since 1990. Visiting lecturer International Research and Studies Foundation. Guest lecturer Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali University Rome, 1995, University College London, 1996, Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva, 1997, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1997.
Visiting professor Western State University, 1993-1996, Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali School Management, 1995, 96, 97, Italian Association of European Jurists, 1994, 95, 96, Tulane Law School, Siena, 1992, 93, 94, 95, 97. Independent expert European Commission Commission, Brussels, 1996.
Member American Society International Law, Italian Society of International Law.
Married Ida Johanne Koppen, November 20, 1996.