Bachelor of Arts, Univercity Vermont, 1950; Master of Arts, Middlebury College, 1951; Doctor of Philosophy, University Michigan, 1963.
Instructor, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 1958-1962; assistant professor, U. Missouri, Columbia, 1962-1966; professor French and Romance linguistics, U. Rochester, New York, since 1966; assistant director, National Defense Education Act French Institute, U. Vermont, Burlington, summer 1964; lecturer, United States State Dept Seminars, Brasov, Romania, summer 1972; lecturer, U. Kentucky, Cluj, Romania, summer 1977; reader, National Endowment for Humanities, since 1974; department education title VI programs, National Endowment for Humanities, 1993. Fulbright lecturer, 1971-1972, Romania, 1986, Brazil.
Member American Association Advancement Slavic Studies, American Association Teachers Spanish and Portuguese, American Romanian Academy, North America Catalan Society, Romanian Studies Association American, Society Romanian Studies, United Nations Association Rochester (board directors), Rennes-Rochester Sister City Association (steering committee), Sigma Delta Pi.
Married Mary MacDonald, August 31, 1957. Children: David, John, Stephen.