After serving in various branches of the army in the North, Chang Chih-kiang was appointed Military Governor of Charhar and later Tupan of the Northwestern Frontier Defence. When Feng Yu-hsiang retired from the Kuo- minchun, he assumed command of the Army and was largely responsible for the masterly retreat from Kalgan across Mongolia into Kansu and Shensi.
He served as Inspector-General for Honan, Shensi and Kansu provinces and later had charge of the Bandit Suppression Forces in Honan. Following the reorganization of the Nationalist Government in 1927, he was made a member of the Military Council, which position he held till the latter part of 1928. During the Northern Expedition, he was appointed Chief-of-Staff of the Revolutionary Army.
Following the organization of the National Opium Suppression Committee on August 20, 1929, he was appointed Chairman. Chang Chih-kiang was a Bandit Suppression Commissioner for Kiangsu with Headquarters at Yangchow, Northern Kiangs between 1930 and 1931. Since 1932 Chang Chih-kiang became a President of the National Physical Culture Institute and Counsellor of the Military Advisory Council.