Wu Chih-Hui received his early education at Wusih, after which he attended the Nanching Academy at Kiangyin, studying Chinese literature. After graduation, he joined the faculty of Peiyang University at Tientsin and later Nanyang College at Shanghai. He also studied for a time at Hung Wen Normal Institute in Japan, where he became a member of the Tung Min Hui.
Upon Wu Chih-Hui returned from Japan, he was connected with a revolutionary organization at Shanghai, but was soon forced to take refuge in England, where he associated with Dr. Sun Yat-sen and returned to China at the time of the first Revolution in 1911. After the success of the Revolution, he became involved in difficulties with Yuan Shih-kai and was again forced to leave China for England. He sojourned in England, France and Germany for some time, conducting revolutionary activities among Chinese students. He was a member of the Kuomintang Central Executive Committee, since 1924.
He was also a member of the Central Political Council since 1925, member of the Central Supervisory Committee of Kuomintang since 1924, assisted in the elimination of the Communists from the Party in 1927, his interest in politics is solely in Kuomintang party affairs and he has not held any government posts. Wu Chih-Hui has always interested himself in literary pursuits and his writings are widely known throughout China. While in France he was a promoter of the Chinese student labor movement and of the Franco-Chinese University in Lyons. He was a severe critic of Tagore during the latter's visit to China on a lecture tour in 1924.