Agrégé des Lettres, L’Ecole Normale Supérieure.
The founder of modern economic history in France, who introduced the historical method into the largely abstract world of French political economy. He described his own area of work as ‘economic art’ in contrast to pure theory, which he labelled as ‘economic science’. Teacher Rhetoric, Alençon, Besançon.
Teacher Economics History, Collège de France, Paris, 1868-1871. Professor, Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers, Paris, 1871. Teacher, L’Ecole Libre des Sciences Political, 1871-1911.