Doctor of Medicine, University Modena, Italy, 1974. Master of Science in Ophthalmology, University Rome, 1979.
Pre-doctoral fellow University Eye Clinic, Tübingen, Germany, 1973-1974. Post-doctoral fellow University Modena Eye Clinic, 1974-1976. Post-doctoral fellow department ophthalmology University Florida, Gainesville, 1976-1978.
Assistant professor department ophthalmology Louisiana State University, New Orleans, 1978-1979. Associate professor department ophthalmology University Modena, 1980-1994. Associate professor, chief orthoptic training program University Bologna, Italy, 1994-2000, professor/chief opht., since 2000.
Chairman standards committee International Perimetric Society, 1982-1988.
Member European Strabismological Association (secretary-treasurer 1987-1995), International Strabismological Association (president since 1994).