AB, Columbia University, 1946; Doctor of Philosophy, University of California, Berkeley, 1954.
Teaching intern, Reed College, 1953-1954; instructor, Ohio State University, Columbus, 1954-1957; assistant professor, U. Missouri, 1957-1959; associate professor, then professor, Michigan State University, 1959-1967; professor of history, U. Missouri, St. Louis, 1968-1971; professor of history, U. Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, from 1971. Fulbright lecturer, Tokyo, 1967-1968.
Served with Army of the United States, 1943-1945. M C.
Married Katherine Hill, July 7, 1946. Married Jean Frappier, July 3, 1963. Children: David, Robert, Sara.