In March 1848, graduating from McDowell's College of Medicine in St. Louis, which institution subsequently became the medical department of the University of the State of Missouri.
After graduation, he served first as an assistant resident physician and then as a resi-dent physician of the St. Louis City Hospital, and later worked as a demonstrator of anatomy in the Missouri Medical College, advancing to the grade of professor of anatomy. During the Civil War, he served as surgeon-general of the Western Sanitary Commission, and as surgeon-general of Missouri. He was called to the chair of physiology in the St. Louis Medical College, where he also filled the chair of anatomy. The following year he became dean of the school, holding this office for the remainder of his life. He also taught surgery at the City Hospital of St. Louis until his death. He was elected president of the American Medical Association and was one of the charter members of the American Surgical Association.
(The Surgical Treatment of President Garfield. Contained i...)
He was married.